Since complementsare optional in this theory, we can incorrectly generate transitivesentences without objects and intransitive sentences with direct objects. Whether a verb requires an object or not needs to be encoded in thelexicon along with any relevant selectional semantic restrictions a verbmay have.
Syntax: a generative introduction
Selectional restrictions are encoded in thematic relations ortheta roles such as agent, experiencer, theme, goal, recipient, source,location, instrument and beneficiary. Theta roles can be used to representthe argument structure of a verb by means of a theta grid. In order toprevent X-bar Theory from overgenerating, the Theta Criterion is introduced if a sentence violates the Theta Criterion, it will be marked asungrammatical. In this chapter the author also considers verbs which taketheta role-less expletive 'it' as subjects. This particular pronoun appearswhen there is no other subject in the sentence and its presence is forcedby the Extended Projection Principle EPP.
Chapter 9 'Head-to-Head Movement' points to another problem raised byX-bar Theory: it undergenerates it cannot generate some word orders. Tosolve this problem, we need transformations, that is, operations that takethe output of X-bar rules D eep -structure , change the structure, andgive as their output a S urface -structure. In this chapter, the authorexamines one general transformation head-to-head movement and itsdifferent realizations verb movement, T movement and do-support.
For verbmovement, the author compares French and English and notes that an adjunctcan appear between the head and the complement in French similar factsobtain with negation. This point ofcross-linguistic variation is captured by the verb movement parameter. In these cases, a dummy verb 'do' is inserted in T to support aninflectional affix the same facts obtain in negative sentences. Chapter 10 'DP Movement' explores another transformation which accountsfor cases where DPs appear in unexpected positions according to thetatheory: DP-movement.
In this chapter, the author examines raisingstructures and concludes that DP-subjects receive an agent theta role inD-structure specifier of VP and subsequently undergo DP movement to fillthe specifier position of the main clause TP. This transformation ismotivated by the EPP requirement.
Basedon some additional data from raising structures expletive insertion doesnot satisfy the EPP , the author explains that the motivation forDP-movement is Case. Nominative case is assigned in the specifier of finiteT and Accusative case is assigned as a sister to the verb. DPs without Casewill be ruled out by the Case Filter. To conclude, the author examinesraising structures with DPs in non-finite T contexts and the properties ofthe passive morpheme.
The main conclusion is that DPs move from positionswhere they can't check Case to positions where they can. In chapter 11 'Wh-movement' , the author shows that wh-elements undergomovement from a Case position to the specifier of CP. Wh-movement can also occur across clauses withwh-words stopping in each specifier of CP.
In other words, wh-movement issuccessive cyclic. The author further shows that wh-movement isconstrained, that is, there are certain contexts called 'islands' out ofwhich wh-movement is disallowed. Examples of island contexts include theComplex DP Island, the wh-island, subjects the subject condition andconjoined structures the Coordinate Structure Constraint.
Island effects especially the wh-island are explained under the Minimal Link Condition MLC which requires that movement be to the first potential position. TheMLC can also account for locality effects with head movement andDP-movement in raising constructions.
The author closes the chapter with adiscussion on echo questions and shows that these questions do not involvemovement and are not subject to the MLC. Chapter 12 'A Unified Theory of Movement' explores the possibility ofunifying all movement rules into a single rule: Move. Since all movement ismotivated by locality, it is proposed that movement is constrained by FullInterpretation. Feature checking needs to occur in a local configurationsuch as specifier-head, head-complement or head-head configuration. Inorder to capture cross-linguistic variation, the system needs to bemodified.
Differences between English andChinese wh-movement are explained under the wh-parameter English is overtand Chinese is covert. The Verb movement parameter captures thedifferences between English and French when it comes to verb movement French is overt and English is covert. The existence of covert movementis independently supported by MLC effects in wh-in-situ languages andquantifier scope in English. Chapter 13 'Expanded VPs' examines the problems raised by ditransitivestructures presence of two complements, c-command, adjacency.
A possiblesolution involves a modification of the syntactic structure so that DP1c-commands DP2. Case assignment to DP1 is alsodiscussed. This proposal works for ditransitive verbs which take a PP or aCP as their final argument. Verbs that take two DP complements are morecomplex. In chapter 14 'Raising, Control, and Empty Categories' the authordiscusses raising subject-to-subject and subject-to-object and control subject and object.
Main predicates in raising constructions do notassign an external theta role. The subject of the embedded clause does nothave Case so it raises to the empty subject position of the main clause tosatisfy Case and the EPP requirement. In contrast, main predicates incontrol constructions assign an external theta role and do not involveraising. The external theta role of the embedded predicate is assigned to anull pronoun without Case under the name of PRO. The author offersdifferent tests to distinguish raising from control: theta grids of matrixpredicates, behavior of idioms and the extraposition construction.
Adiscussion of subject-to-object raising follows.
Syntax: a generative introduction
In this case, the subjectof the embedded sentence raises to the object position of the matrix verbto receive accusative Case. Next, the author considers the nature ofPRO and concludes that it is not subject to binding theory but to adifferent module of the grammar called control theory. The chapter closeswith a discussion of 'pro' and the null subject parameter. Then, the author explains that bindingprinciples hold at LF. For this, we need to assume the Copy Theory Chomsky, and propose that at least one copy of the chain needs to besubject to the binding principles.
After examining numerous data, theauthor refines the notion of 'binding domain' and reformulates the bindingprinciples as follows. According to Principle A, ''one copy of an anaphor ina chain must be bound within the smallest CP or DP containing it and apotential antecedent'' p.
Syntax: A Generative Introduction (Introducing Linguistics) by Andrew Carnie. | eBay
According to Principle B, ''a pronoun mustbe free within the smallest CP or DP containing it but not containing apotential antecedent. If no such category is found, the pronoun must befree within the root CP'' p. Advanced Topics. Parts of Speech. Constituency Trees and Rules.
Structural Relations. Extending Xbar Theory to Functional Categories. The Problem of Ditransitive Verbs. Challenge Problem Sets 1 2. Raising Control and Empty Categories Introduction. Raising vs Control. Auxiliaries and Functional Categories.
HeadtoHead Movement. A Puzzle for the Theory of Theta Roles. Tying Up a Loose. In thisthird edition topics have been updated new exercises added andthe online resources have been expanded.
Supported by expanded online studentand instructorresources including extra chapters on HPSG LFG andtime-saving materials for lecturers including problem setsPowerPoint slides and an instructors manual Features new chapters on ellipsis auxiliaries andnon-configurational languages Covers topics including phrase structure the lexicon Casetheory movement covert movement locality conditions VP shellsand control Accompanied by a new optional workbook available separatelyof sample problem sets which are designed to give students greaterexperience of analyzing syntactic structure.
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